EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , 

 ISSN 2394- 3211

Impact Factor: 4.161

 ICV - 45.77

Abstract

CHEMICAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF EDIBLE CLAY (ULO) SOURCED FROM SOUTHERN NIGERIA

Ukwueze Stanley Ejike* and Ochuba Chikodili Ogugua

ABSTRACT

The study was aimed at the pharmaco-chemical analysis and toxicological evaluation of three edible clay (ulo) samples from parts of southern Nigeria. The elemental constituents of the samples were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) while the moisture and ash contents were determined using standard procedures. The acute toxicity assay was carried out according to Lorke’s method using albino mice. The chloroform, butanol and aqueous fractions of the methanol extract were assayed for the presence of phytochemicals. There was presence of calcium, magnesium, nickel, cobalt, chromium, manganese, iron, lead and cadmium in all three samples. The mean concentration of some of the elements varied significantly (p<0.05). The lead (Pb) content of the samples was within the standard approved limits except sample B whose content (0.84ppm) was above the specified limit (0.3ppm). Only sample B contained mercury. The mean moisture contents did not vary significantly among the samples (p=0.498) while the mean ash contents varied significantly among the samples (p=0.010). No deaths were recorded from the acute toxicity assay. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of reducing sugars and steroidal nucleus. In conclusion, edible clay was found to be mostly inorganic but contained some traces of organic deposits with low nutritive value. The high inorganic content, low moisture content and low toxicity might be indicative of its relative safety for human consumption as a source of some minerals but caution should be applied in its sourcing to avoid ingestion of heavy metals such as lead and mercury.

Keywords: Edible clay, toxicity, phytochemicals, minerals, heavy metals, pharmaco-chemical analysis.


[Full Text Article]

INDEXING

NEWS & UPDATION

  • New Issue Published

    Its Our pleasure to inform you that, EJPMR 1 July 2017 Issue has been Published, Kindly check it on http://www.ejpmr.com/home/current_issues

  • EJPMR JULY ISSUE PUBLISHED

    JULY 2017 Issue has been successfully launched on 1 July 2017

  • EJPMR New Impact Factor

    Its our Pleasure to Inform you that EJPMR Impact Factor has been increased from 3.628 to 4.161 due to high quality Publication at International Level

  • Index Copernicus Value

    EJPMR Received Index Copernicus Value 45.77, due to High Quality Publication in EJPMR at International Level

  • Journal web site support Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, Saffari for easy download of article without any trouble.

    .

  • Article Invited for Publication

    Article are invited for publication in EJPMR Coming Issue

Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process)