ODONTOCLAST: A BRIEF OVERVIEW
Dr. Purva Prakash Patil* and Dr. Priya Anil Bhagde
Odontoclasts are responsible for resorption of dental hard tissues in various physiological and pathological oral conditions. These cells are usually studied and compared with osteoclasts because of some overlapping morphological and biochemical characteristics. However, there are still some differences. Some studies had shown that, similar to osteoclastogenesis RANK, RANKL and OPG are involved in odontoclastogenesis. Also, similar pathways [alphav)beta3) integrin pathway and c-Fms pathway] seem to operate during activation of both odontoclasts and osteoclasts. According to certain contradictory studies response of odontoclasts to parathyroid hormone extract and certain drugs was found to be different from that of osteoclasts. Thus, it can be proposed that there might be additional pathways involved in formation and activation of odontoclasts. Physiological root resorption is seen only during shedding of deciduous teeth. Whereas pathologic root resorption can be due to various causes like trauma as in orthodontic treatment, hormonal imbalance, various cysts and tumors affecting jaw bones and periodontal disease. Pathways for formation and activation of odontoclasts can vary slightly among these pathologies. Thus, further studies are necessary to have a clear molecular insight in formation and activation of odontoclasts which might help to develop modalities to prevent pathological dental resorption.
Keywords: Odontoclast, Alpha?v)beta?3) integrin pathway c-Fms pathway, root resorption.
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