HOMEOBOX GENES AND OROFACIAL DEVELOPMENT -A REVIEW
*Dr. K. Srinivasan MDS and Dr. S. Chitra MD
Body organization requires cell differentiation and morphogenesis which are controlled by gene expression. Gene expression is defined as an activation of a gene that results in production of polypeptide/protein that can activate/deactivate other genes with the influence of transcription factors (growth factors). Every organism has a unique body pattern because of the influence of Homeobox genes. Hox genes are critical regulators of embryonic development, being involved in formation of the Skeleton and Limbs, Craniofacial morphogenesis, and in development of the Central Nervous System, Gastrointestinal and Urogenital tracts. Aberrant expression of Hox genes have been described in developmental abnormalities and solid tumors as well as in hematologic malignancies. The purpose of this review article is to explore the growth and formation of the head and neck from embryological development through puberty in order to understand how this knowledge is necessary for the development.
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