ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND CYCLOOXYGENASES INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF ASTERACEAE, RICH IN FLAVONOIDS AND TANNINS
Ibrahim M. El-Ashmawy*
The species of Asteraceae were used traditionally in treatment of inflammatory disorders. The present study aimed to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of methanolic extract of aerial parts of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. (R.epapposum), Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch.Bip (A. fragrantissima), Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (A.herba-alba), Echinops spinosus L. (E. spinosus) and Echinops hussonii Boiss. (E.hussonii). The extracts were evaluated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema (Acute and sub-acute models), and turpentine oil –induced granuloma pouch bioassay. The efficacy against cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) and their phytoconstituents were also investigated. The plant extracts of A. fragrantissima, E. spinosus and A. herba- alba exhibited marked anti-inflammatory activity in the both phases of carrageenan induced acute edema test. Moreover, the activity in carrageenan induced sub-acute edema test for the extracts of A. herba-alba, E. spinosus and A. fragrantissima in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the moderate anti-inflammatory activity obtained by the extracts of E.hussonii and R.epapposum in the edema induced by the sub-plantar injection of carrageenan (either at the acute or sub-acute inflammatory models). The plant extracts of A. herba-alba, E. spinosus and A. fragrantissima exhibited potential inhibitory action on exudate formation and the moderate activity induced by the extracts of E.hussonii and R.epapposum. It was observed that the extracts showed pronounced inhibitory effects against COX-1 and COX-2. This study proved that these plant extracts could be used for the treatment of rheumatism and other inflammatory disorders.
Keywords: Anti-inflammatory, Asteraceae, Carrageenan, Turpentine oil, COX-1, COX-2.
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