ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GLYCOSIDES FROM CONVOLVULUS PROSTRATUS, FICUS VIRENS, PHOENIX DACTIFERA, SPONDIAS MANGIFERA AND TERMINALIA BELERICA
Shahnaz Sultana, Mohammed Ali*, Showkat Rasool Mir and Danish Iqbal
Glycosides occur in plants as pigments and are used in medication. Our study was planned to isolate the glycosides from five medicinal plants, viz. Convolvulus prostratus, Ficus virens, Phoenix dactifera, Spondias pinnata. and Terminalia belerica. Convolvulus prostratus Forssk. (Convolvulaceae), used to cure mental disorders, contained geranilan-3-ol-1- carboxylate -1-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(2′→1′′)-O-β-D-xylopyranoside.(1). Ficus virens Aiton (Moraceae) is used to treat apoplexy, blood diseases, bone fracture, delirium, diabetes, leucorrhoea, pain, rheumatism, skin ulcers and vertigo. Phytochemical investigation of a methanolic extract of the stem bark afforded α-D-glucopyranosyl-(6→1ʹ)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(6ʹ→1ʹʹ)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl- (6ʹʹ→1ʹʹʹ)-O-α-D-glucopyranoside (6-α-D- tetraglucoside, 2). Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae) fruits are taken as an essential healthy food in the human diet and showed anticancer, antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antiseptic and hepatoprotective properties. Column chromatography of a methanolic extract of the fruits gave a new α-D-pentaglucoside derivative characterized as α-D-glucopyranosyl-(6a→1b)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(6b→1c)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(6c→1d)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(6d→1e)-O-α-D-glucopyranoside (3). The fruits of Spondias pinnata (L. f.) Kurz. (Anacardiaceae) are used as an antiscorbutic, aphrodisiac, astringent, blood purifier, tonic and to cures bilious dyspepsia, dysentery, burning sensation and earache. Subjection of a methanolic extract of the fruits of S. pinnata to silica gel column chromatography furnished propane-1,2-dioic acid-3-carboxyl O-β-D-glucopyranosyl- (6′→1′′)-O-β-D-glucofuranoside, (tricarballylic acid 6-O-β-D- diglucoside, 4). The fruits of Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Combretaceae) are used to alleviate asthma, bronchitis, cardiac disorders, colds, cough, diabetes, dropsy, dyspepsia, eye and skin diseases, jaundice, leprosy, ulcer, urinary disorders and vomiting. Geranilan-10-oxy-10-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl 2′-benzoate (5) was isolated from the fruits of T. bellerica. The structures of these glycosides have been established by analysis of spectral data and chemical reactions.
Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Glycosides, Isolation, Characterization.
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