AMELIORATORY EFFECT OF METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA ON SOME LIVER FUNCTION AND OXIDATIVE STRESS MARKERS IN SODIUM FLUORIDE TOXICITY IN SEA BREAM SPARUS AURATUS L.
Rayed H. Khalil*, Amany M. Diab, Medhat S. Shakweer, Hanan A. Ghetas and Khallaf M.
Background: Because of the potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulating properties of Moringa (Moringa oleifera), there is an increased interest in its potential role in the prevention and control of sodium fluoride toxicity in cultured sea bream. Objective: This study investigated the effects of sodium fluoride on sea bream Sparus auratus L. and protection effect of Moringa oleifera by exposed of sea bream to 1/10 dose of sodium fluoride 96hr-LC50 (6.1 mg/L) and study the changes in antioxidant enzyme activities of gills tissues. Material and methods: Two hundred and sixty sea bream was used for determination of LC50 and chronic toxicity the fish divided into four groups of fifty fishes each. Control group, received no any treatment; 1/10 dose of sodium fluoride LC50 (6.1 mg/L), sodium fluoride plus Moringa oleifera extract and Moringa oleifera extract 1% of diet. Results: The results showed that the sodium fluoride at dose of 6.1 mg/L the level of SOD; CAT in gills and total protein in the serum of sea bream were decreased. On the other side the level of AST; ALT and creatinine were increased in the serum of sea bream during sodium fluoride toxicity. The SOD; CAT in gills at the sodium fluoride exposed group was found lower than the M. oleifera supplemented groups. Exposure of sea bream to sodium fluoride for 8th weeks resulted in significant changes in mRNA abundance for a limited subset of the analyzed of hepatic sea bream genes. GSR mRNA levels decrease significantly upon incubation with sodium fluoride, in liver, irrespectively to the length of the treatment, whereas the corresponding levels of sea bream feed with 1% M. oleifera were indistinguishable from controls. Discussion and conclusion: On the basis of present findings it could be concluded that increased sodium fluoride content in water causes adverse effect on fish. The changes of plasma biomarkers as antioxidant enzymes were the physiological responses of sea bream to the stress of sodium fluoride exposure. Moringa oleifera tree can be grown to produce more natural products and environmentally friendly materials.
Keywords: Moringa oleifera, sodium fluoride toxicity, sea bream.
[Full Text Article]