PROXIMATE AND ANTI-NUTRIENT PROFILE CHANGES IN DIFFERENTLY PROCESSED TUBER FLOURS OF ICACINA SENEGALENSIS A. JUSS (ICACINACEAE) FROM SOUTHERN NIGERIA
Esien David-Oku*, Roseline Okon Edide, Godwin Christian Akuodor, Oluwatosin Elizabeth Ntaji, Juliet Ifeoma Obiajunwa-Otteh and Henrieta Nkechi Ene-Obong
Obective: The proximate and anti-nutrient profile changes in differently processed tuber flours of Icacina senegalensis A. Juss (Icacinaceae) from Southern Nigeria were investigated. Method: Peeled, chopped and washed tubers were divided into four portions for different treatments: drying (RD), boiling / drying (BD), fermenting / drying (FD), and fermenting/ boiling / drying (FBD). Fermentation was by soaking in water for three days while drying was by oven at 40oC for 48hrs. The dried samples were pulverized into respective flours and later subjected to proximate and anti-nutrient profiling using standard methods. Results: Fermentation caused significant improvement in crude protein content (%) of FD (3.64) and FBD (4.03) over RD (3.36) and BD (3.39); while boiling resulted in drastic reduction of crude fat (%) in BD (2.5) and FBD (1.00) when compared to RD (7.48) and FD (3.64). FBD had the least % crude fibre content (6.26) which was significantly lower (p<0.05) than the other treatment groups RD, BD, and FB (7.49-7.64). Even though the mean % carbohydrate content of BD, FD, and FBD (77, 70, and 79 respectively), were significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of RD (68), RD still retained significantly higher % energy (350) compared to the other samples (332-339). A combination of fermentation and boiling was the most efficient in reduction/elimination of the anti-nutrients – oxalate cyanate and phytate when compared to boiling and fermentation separately. Conclusion: A combination of fermentation and boiling improves protein and carbohydrate contents and is more efficient in eliminating anti-nutrients in Icacina senegalensis tuber.
Keywords: Icacina senegalensis; Tuber flours; Proximate composition; Anti-nutrients; Boiling; Fermentation.
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