PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF URINARY SCHISTOSOMIASIS AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN IN KATSINA-ALA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF BENUE STATE, NIGERIA
*Iboyi M. O., Onekutu A. and Amuta E. U.
Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases especially in Nigeria which has the greatest number of infected people worldwide. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors of urinary Schistosomiasis among school children in Katsina-Ala Local Government Area of Benue State, North Central Nigeria. Urine samples were collected from 385 school children and examined using sedimentation/filtration techniques to determine the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-validated questionnaire. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 16.4% of the 385 children examined. Islamia Quranic School Tor Donga had the highest prevalence 18/73 (24.2%) while Fidel Primary School recorded the lowest prevalence of 5/58 (08.6%). No significant difference was observed in the prevalence of urinary Schistosomiasis between the different schools (χ2=10.192; P=0.070). When sex was considered, Males recorded higher prevalence (20.1 %) than females (12.9%) and no significant difference was observed in the prevalence between them (χ2=3.612; p=0.057). There was also no significant variation between prevalence and age groups (χ2=1.677; P=0.0642), age group ≥18 years had the highest prevalence of (20.2%) while the lowest prevalence (12.1 % ) was observed in the 3-7 years age group. Children that swim and fish in water bodies had the highest rate of urinary Schistosomiasis 29.0% while the lowest infection was among irrigated rice farmers with a prevalence of 13.7% (χ2=42.66; P= 0.000). Children who Bathe/Play in infected water bodies are at risk with urinary Schistosomiasis odd ratio (0.38-1.09; 0.38-1.20). Children whose parents are farmer recorded the highest prevalence of 18.1% while the lowest prevalence was observed among children whose parents were traders (08.2%), (χ2=1.96; P=0.312). In addition, children whose parents had no formal education recorded the highest prevalence of 26.8% while the lowest infection rate was observed among children whose parents had tertiary education. (χ2= 9.00; P=0.000). The overall prevalence of infection as measured by filtration was 63/385 (16.4%). Eighty one percent (81.0%) of the subject’s recorded Light intensity of infection while 19.1% recorded heavy intensity of infection with a significant difference (t= 23.100; P=0.000). In relation to sex, no significant difference was observed in egg excretion between sex in both light 23 and 28 (75.73% - 88.5%) and heavy 9 and 3(11.3% - 24.3%) intensities of infection (χ2=3.612; p=0.057). In conclusion, this study revealed that schistosomiasis is still prevalent in Katsina-Ala dispite the mass drug administration. Continuous mass drug administration, health education and community mobilization are imperative strategies to significantly reduce the prevalence of schistosomiasis in the Local Government Area.
Keywords: Urinary schistosomiasis, Prevalence, Risk factors, School -children, Katsina-Ala Nigeria.
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