EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (Under Process) , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 4.897

 ICV - 79.57

Abstract

CEREBRAL MALARIA IN TROPICAL SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA; A SENTINEL DISEASE FOR EPILEPTIC SEIZURES: "A FOCUSED REVIEW"

Balarabe S. A.*

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization estimated that more than 83% of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurs in sub- Saharan Africa. Malaria in its cerebral form known as Cerebral Malaria (CM), may lead to acute or long-term neurological complications. Generally, neurological sequelae are rare in adults recovering from cerebral malaria, accounting for less than 1%, compared with children in whom neurological residual abnormalities are more common, with approximately 12% still having sequelae such as hemiplegia, cortical blindness, aphasia and cerebellar ataxia. These features often resolve in over 50% of the children, but about 25% will be left with major residual neurological deficits. Furthermore, sequelae such as epilepsy have been reported and may only become evident later during the adolescent age. Among all cases of severe malaria caused by plasmodium falciparum, Cerebral Malaria (CM) stands as the most severe neurological presentation of acute plasmodium falciparum infection. It causes diffuse encephalopathy associated with seizures in at least 80%, and status epilepticus, in more than 30% of cases. Although survivors of CM make a full recovery, neurological sequelae such as epilepsy occur in 3-31%. Cerebral malaria is histopathologically characterized by swelling of small blood vessels such as cerebral capillaries and venules with both parasitized and non- parasitized red blood cells. There may be impairment in the structural and physiological dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier. Furthermore, There is histological evidence of cerebral edema, with petechial haemorrhages. Durck's granuloma may also be seen due to accumulation of glial cells surrounding hemorrhagic foci. This review tends to discuss the mechanisms involved in the neuropathology caused by CM, focusing on epilepsy.

Keywords: Cerebral Malaria, epileptic seizures, Sentinel disease, Tropical Sub-Saharan Africa.


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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (Under Process)