An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (Under Process) , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 4.897

 ICV - 79.57



Varsha Narayanan*, Shailesh Pallewar, Abhay Mane and Amit Bhargava


Introduction: Calcium is one of the vital minerals required by the body and may often be deficient due to multiple factors, requiring intake of calcium supplements. Available calcium supplements vary in calcium salts used and amount of elemental calcium available, dosage strength, as well as the absorption and bioavailability of the calcium present. Calcium from natural coral sources may offer benefits of a possible better absorption due to a bioactive structure. Objective: To compare calcium supplements from natural coral sources (coral calcium) with available calcium carbonate (from non-coral sources) and calcium citrate supplements in healthy volunteers by measuring rise in blood calcium and bioavailability, post intake of each of the calcium supplements. Methodology: The study was an open label, single centric study comparing 5 groups of 9 volunteers each taking different calcium supplements: two arms of coral calcium supplement tablets of elemental calcium strengths 225 mg and 500mg (Group A, B), 2 arms of non-coral calcium carbonate supplement tablets of elemental calcium strengths 400mg and 500mg (Group C, D), and one arm of calcium citrate malate supplement tablets with elemental calcium 250mg (Group E). Baseline fasting blood and urine samples were taken followed by dosing of the calcium tablet preparation. Blood and urine samples were thereafter collected at 2, 4, 6, and 10 hours to evaluate blood calcium levels, bioavailability and urinary calcium excretion. Results: For all groups, peak blood calcium levels were seen at 4 hours. The rise in blood calcium was found to be higher for coral calcium tablets (P<0.05 against tablets of non-coral calcium carbonate and calcium citrate malate). The calculated bioavailability by area under the curve (AUC) was also significantly more for Coral calcium tablets (P<0.005 versus tablets of non-coral calcium carbonate and calcium citrate malate). The urine calcium excretion also increased proportionately over 10 hours for each of the groups. No adverse events were seen in any of the groups. Conclusion: Calcium from Coral source may show better absorption and bioavailability as compared to other Calcium supplements containing non coral calcium carbonate and calcium citrate malate.

Keywords: Coral calcium, blood calcium, bioavailability, absorption, calcium carbonate.

[Full Text Article]



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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (Under Process)