An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (Under Process) , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 4.897

 ICV - 79.57



*Benwoke Ihunwo I. W.


The clavicle of human body is a long bone placed horizontally. It has two ends, sternal and acromial end and a shaft which is curved with a forward convexity in its medial two third and a forward concavity in its lateral one third. It is one of the bones which is used for gender determination especially in cases were only skeletal remains are available for forensic identification. The gender determination of the individual is a primary criterion of identification but this is a very difficult problem and becomes even more challenging when only a single bone like the clavicle is available. Osteometric indices are determined by applying formulae based on measurements. This study was carried out to assess the accuracy of the robustness index of the clavicle in gender determination in Nigerian population. In the present study the robustness index of the clavicle was calculated from already measured parameters (length and mid- shaft circumference) to determine gender in Nigeria population (40 Nigerian southsouth and south East clavicles 25males and 15 females). Data were analyzed using statistical package for social science (IBM version 23) and p-values≤0.05 was considered significant. From the result, mean robustness index of right male clavicle was 25.54±1.99 and left was 24.49±2.45. The mean robustness index of right female clavicle was 22.65±1.22 and left was 22.00±1.28. From the result, the mean of the robustness index was significantly higher in males (p<0.001). Again the RI was higher on the right side for both clavicle for both males and females. Gender can be predicted or determined with a high degree of accuracy, even when only the clavicle is available. This can be very useful in sex determination in cases of explosions, plane crashes, decomposed and mutilated bodies.

Keywords: Clavicle, Gender determination, accuracy, males, females.

[Full Text Article]



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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (Under Process)