THALASSEMIA - PAEDIATRIC DENTISTRY PERSPECTIVE - AN OVERVIEW
*Dr. SVSG. Nirmala M.D.S., Dr. M.S. Minor Babu M.D.S. and Dr. Saikrishna Degala M.D.S.
Thalassemia is a blood disorder, characterised by defective haemoglobin production which is associated with splenomegaly and bone changes and effects early in life. Therefore, it is also known as coole‘s anaemia. Clinical manifestations are mucosa is pale, atrophic glossitis, chipmunk face appearance, nasal bridge is depressed, maxillary sinus is small, teeth are discoloured, spiky shaped short crowns and roots, macroglossia due to flared incisors, increased overjet and multiple spacing between the teeth causing malocclusion, taurodontism, absence of inferior alveolar canal, cortex of the mandible is thin, obliterated, sinus obliterated. Dental care should given as a team approach. Prophylactic antibiotics should be given prophylactically especially post-splenectomy. Avoid aspirin, prefer acetaminophen, oral chelators commonly causes hepatitis, neutropenia and agranulocytosis. Orthodontic treatment should be considered early to reduce the effects on a craniofacial skeleton and apply low forces due to thin cortices and follow short interval between the appointments. Avoid treatment during a crisis and only if the emergency occurs treatment should attempt. Avoid treatment under general anaesthesia. However, if necessary it should be carried out with the haematologist. Oral surgical procedures, periodontal procedures, pericoronitis and abscess, are to be undertaken under antibiotic prophylaxis. Apart from above this article discuss etiology clinical features and management of Children with Thalassemia.
Keywords: children, dental care, oral health, Thalassemia facies.
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