NASOPHARYNGEAL RHABDOMYOSARCOMA: A CASE REPORT
Dr. Sunita Singh (Senior Professor), Dr. Bharti Sharma (Junior Resident), Dr. Ritesh Kumar Sheorain* (Junior
Resident) and Dr. Rajeev Sen (Senior Professor and Head of the Department)
Introduction: Rhabdomyosarcoma is a soft tissue sarcoma arising from cells of myogenic lineage. Most common
sites being extremities, perirectal and perineal region. It is a malignant tumor of soft tissue in children under 15
years of age, accounting 5% to 10% of all childhood malignancies. Head and neck region is frequently involved in
childhood. For pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma cases, most of them have orbital primaries in the head and neck
region, nasopharynx and nasal cavity cases are rarely seen. Case Report: An 11 years old boy presented with
history of nasal mass, nasal obstruction and epistaxis. These symptoms started 4 to 5 months back and gradually
progressed. The histological diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma was confirmed by immunohistochemistry method.
We report this case because of its unique location in nasopharynx. Discussion: Rhabdomyosarcoma originates
from immature mesenchymal cells that are committed to skeletal muscle differentiation. It is the most frequent soft
tissue tumor in children. Histologically, it is distinguished in 3 types: embryonic, alveolar and pleomorphic.
Embryonic type is mainly affect children less than 5 years of age. Pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma cases in head and
neck region mainly have orbital primaries whereas nasopharynx and nasal cavity rhabdomyosarcoma cases are
rarely seen. Only histology with immunohistochemistry provides specific diagnosis, in the form of diffuse desmin
and myogenin staining. Conclusion: Rhabdomyosarcoma is a most common type of soft tissue sarcoma in
children. It is localized in the head and neck region in 40% cases. Treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma is complex,
including multi-drug chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery.
Keywords: Rhabdomyosarcoma, Nasopharynx, Myogenin.
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