EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

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 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 4.897

 ICV - 79.57

Abstract

DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT OF CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS

Dr. I. S. Anand, Rajat Chaudhary*, Dr. P. H. Prajapati, Dr. D. J. Sen, Dhiren Chaudhary

ABSTRACT

In the mid-1960s, experimental work on molecules under screening as coronary dilators allowed the discovery of the mechanism of calcium entry blockade by drugs later named calcium channel blockers. This paper summarizes scientific research on these small molecules interacting directly with L-type voltage-operated calcium channels. It also reports on experimental approaches translated into understanding of their therapeutic actions. The importance of calcium in muscle contraction was discovered by Sidney Ringer who reported this fact in 1883. Interest in the intracellular role of calcium arose 60 years later out of Kamada (Japan) and Heibrunn (USA) experiments in the early 1940s. Studies on pharmacology of calcium function were initiated in the mid 1960s and their therapeutic applications globally occurred in the the 1980s. The first part of this report deals with basic pharmacology in the cardiovascular system particularly in isolated arteries. In the section entitled from calcium antagonists to calcium channel blockers, it is recalled that drugs of a series of diphenylpiperazines screened in vivo on coronary bed precontracted by angiotensin were initially named calcium antagonists on the basis of their effect in depolarized arteries contracted by calcium. Studies on arteries contracted by catecholamines showed that the vasorelaxation resulted from blockade of calcium entry. Radiochemical and electrophysiological studies performed with dihydropyridines allowed their cellular targets to be identified with L-type voltage-operated calcium channels. The modulated receptor theory helped the understanding of their variation in affinity dependent on arterial cell membrane potential and promoted the terminology calcium channel blocker (CCB) of which the various chemical families are introduced in the paper. In the section entitled tissue selectivity of CCBs, it is shown that characteristics of the drug, properties of the tissue, and of the stimuli are important factors of their action. The high sensitivity of hypertensive animals is explained by the partial depolarization of their arteries. It is noted that they are arteriolar dilators and that they cannot be simply considered as vasodilators. The second part of this report provides key information about clinical usefulness of CCBs. A section is devoted to the controversy on their safety closed by the Allhat trial (2002). Sections are dedicated to their effect in cardiac ischemia, in cardiac arrhythmias, in atherosclerosis, in hypertension, and its complications. CCBs appear as the most commonly used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. As far as hypertension is concerned, globally the prevalence in adults aged 25 years and over was around 40% in 2008. Usefulness of CCBs is discussed on the basis of large clinical trials. At therapeutic dosage, they reduce the elevated blood pressure of hypertensive patients but don't change blood pressure of normotensive subjects, as was observed in animals. Those active on both L- and T-type channels are efficient in nephropathy. Alteration of cognitive function is a complication of hypertension recognized nowadays as eventually leading to dementia. This question is discussed together with the efficacy of CCBs in cognitive pathology. In the section entitled beyond the cardiovascular system, CCBs actions in migraine, neuropathic pain, and subarachnoid hemorrhage are reported. The final conclusions refer to long-term effects discovered in experimental animals that have not yet been clearly reported as being important in human pharmacotherapy.

Keywords: calcium channel blockers, voltage operated calcium channels, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, stroke, dementia, cardiac arrhythmia.


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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (Under Process)