EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (Under Process) , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 4.897

 ICV - 79.57

Abstract

CHRONOLOGICAL, BONE AGE, MATURITY, CORTICAL INDEX AND CORTICAL VOLUME INDEX IN RELATION TO THE FLUORIDE CONTENT IN WATER IN A RURAL COMMUNITY IN KENYA

*Gladys N. Opinya, BDS (Nbi), CAGS, MSc.D (Boston USA); PhD (Nbi)

ABSTRACT

Growth in children and adolescents is closely related to bone thickness, length and bone maturity as represented by an increase of minerals in the cortical bone and a general reduction in the medulla width. The study aim was to determine the bone age, cortical index, and cortical volume index and relate to the chronological age and the fluoride content in the drinking water. The sample size was determined using the Fisher et al. formula. The mean fluoride concentration in the surface and groundwater was 0.65mg /l and 9.9 mg/l respectively. The 107 children and adolescents selected for the study were born and raised in the study community. The boys and girls aged 6-10 years were 60 (56.1%), while the adolescent boys and girls were 47 (43.9%). The mean chronological age for the whole group was 10.1±3.6 years; mean bone age, bone maturity 1.05±1.04years; cortical index, 0.38±0.09; and the cortical bone volume was 0.065±0.015. The chronological and bone age, cortical index and cortical volume index had a significant negative linear relationship with fluoride content in groundwater. The cortical index and cortical bone volume of the adolescents had a weak linear relationship low fluoride in water. In conclusion bone age, maturity, the cortical index and the cortical volume index had an inverse relation with the high fluoride in water. Also, the bone maturity did not occur at the same rate as bone age, cortical index and cortical volume index.

Keywords: Water, fluoride, bone age, maturity, cortical index cortical volume index.


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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (Under Process)