PD-1/PD-L1 BLOCKADE IN METASTATIC BLADDER CANCER TREATMENT: WHAT CAN WE DO NOW FOR THE PATIENTS?
Jiajia Cai and Song Wu*
The incidence of bladder cancer (BC) is increasing and this malignant tumor is common urological malignancy in human beings. The conventional general treatment to decrease or control the tumor cells are not satisfactory, so the treatment of BC has changed over time to revolve round not only impacted by chemotherapy and surgery, but also impacted by the use of immunotherapy. Tumor immunotherapy is a general term for enhancing the antitumor immune response by mobilizing the host's immune defense mechanism or by giving certain biologically active substances. Blocking checkpoints is durable clinical responses across multiple tumor types, including BC. However, for some special patients, it is fail to control tumor growth by the blockade of PD-1/PD-L1. Now, we perform a literature review about the clinical trials of PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint blockades especially for BC patients, introducing comprehensive assessment about biomarkers and investigators for the aim of precise treatment for those patients and what we can do to improve the effects of immunotherapy for BC.
Keywords: PD-1/PD-L1,bladder cancer.
[Full Text Article]