EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (Under Process) , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 4.897

 ICV - 79.57

Abstract

COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES MELLITUS: AN INSIGHT IN TO BIOCHEMICAL BASIS

Bunza J. M.* and Alhassan A. J.

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized with hyper/hypoglycaemia, hypo/hyperinsulinemia. DM is associated with two broad metabolic complications viz; Short term complications including; diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), hyperosmolar non ketotic coma (hyperosmolar hyperglycaemia state (HHS)) and hypoglycaemia, and the Long term systemic complications which are of two types; micro vascular complications such as such as diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic microangiopathy, and diabetic neuropathy and the macro vascular complications include cardiovascular disease, heart attacks and stroke. The hyperglycaemia activates different signaling mechanisms such as an increased polyol pathway, advanced-glycation end products (AGEs) formation, activation of Protein Kinase C (PKC) and hexosamine pathway leading to over expression of reactive oxygen species and subsequent development of diabetic complications. Hyperinsulinaemia may grossly affect nutrient homeostasis viz; cell uptake of amino acids (all cells) and fatty acids, stimulation of glycolysis, inhibition of gluconeogenesis (liver), synthesis of glycogen (liver and muscle), triglyceride (liver and adipose) and protein (all cells) DNA synthesis, gene expression and growth promotion (mitogenic effects) (all cells), Inhibition of apoptosis (all cells) Stimulation of the N+ / K+ ATPase ‘pump’ (adipose and muscle). In conclusion DM as progressive chronic disease is closely related with complications such as diabetic nephropathy, diabetic foot, and diabetic retinopathy, cardiovascular disease. All these conditions must not be unconnected with altered metabolic status due to persistent abnormal glucose and insulin levels.

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Complications, Oxidative Stress, Polyol Pathway.


[Full Text Article]

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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (Under Process)