EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT POWER, PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BACTRIS GASIPAES SEED EXTRACTS FOR DERMOCOSMETIC FORMULATIONS
German L. Madrigal Redondo*, Rolando Vargas Zúñiga, Gustavo Carazo Berrocal, Nils Ramírez Arguedas, Eleaneth Baltodano Viales, Jeimy Blanco Barrantes and Arlene Loría Gutierrez
Introduction: Bactris Gasipaes is a palm tree from which a fruitâ€”commonly known in Costa Rica as Pejibayeâ€” is obtained. Is native to Central America and very common in local meals because of its high content of starch in its fruit, but also, its wood is used for various utensils, and the tender stems are cut in half to obtain its marrow, commonly known as palmito, is widely used in salads and other dishes, the seed is an industrial waste product, which has high potential to be used as a raw material for the production of cosmetic products and drugs because of its content of antioxidants, fats and other compounds that have been linked to biological actions. The objective of the present study is to identify the main phytochemical groups and to quantify the main markers in order to associate them with cosmetic or medicinal functions in pharmaceutical products. Materials and methods: The ripe fruits of Bactris gasipaes were peeled, the seeds were separated from the mesocarp, then dried at 75 Â°C for 3 hours, milled, fractionated with low, medium and high polar solvents, followed by phytochemical screening according to the Guidelines for Quality Control of Natural Origin Products of the World Health Organization. The antioxidant properties were evaluated by means of the H-ORAC, and DPPH assay, the total phenol concentration was determined by Follin ciocalteau, and total carotenoids by visible spectroscopy. The content and type of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography with mass detector, finally the physicochemical properties of the aqueous extract, pH, specific gravity, Brix degrees, conductimetry, and osmometry were determined, and an absorption spectrum was performed in the range from 260 nm to 800 nm. Results and Conclusions: The study found little concentration of phenolic compounds such as condensed and non-condensed tannins. The existence of anthocyanins was not determined; carotenoids, terpenes, flavonoids, saponins, fats, carbohydrates, and alkaloids were found as major phytochemical groups. A medium to high antioxidant power was found, measured in a H-ORAC 13.08 Â± 0.57 Î¼g mol Trolox Equivalent/g dry seed, and an EC 50 1014 mg/L for seed oil. The total phenols 0.447 Â± 0.020 mg/gram dry sample of gallic acid equivalents verify the qualitative results of the phytochemical screening and show a low presence of antioxidant phenolic compounds and a humidity of about 6% in the seed, in addition terpenoid compounds, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates and fats were found, which makes Bactris gasipaes an excellent active for antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-wrinkles, nourishing for the skin, moisturizers, and emollient formulations. The seed oil consists mainly of saturated fat 84.8% Â± 1.7, the presence of lauric acid, myristic and palmitic acid was found, and a 15.2% Â± 1.7 mainly composed of oleic and linoleic acids, the pH is practically neutral 6.32 Â± 0.10, the aqueous extract is hyperosmotic (2174 Â± 9.54 mOs/kg) and has a high electrical conductivity (1513 Â± 18.48 Î¼S/cm) due to the presence of polyelectrolytes and a high concentration of sugars, mainly sucrose, this was verified according to the obtained brix degrees (3.43 Â° Â± 0.02). Finally the 2% w/w seed oil shows an absorption of ultraviolet radiation of 20% in the wavelengths between 260 nm to 400 nm, which could also be useful to formulate compositions for sun protection.
Keywords: Bactris gasipaes, carotenoids, Pejibaye, Antioxidant, Phytochemical screening, Seed, Cosmetic.
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