EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 4.897

 ICV - 79.57

Abstract

EVALUTION OF MULTI-DRUG RESISTANCE AND ?-LACTAMASE PRODUCTION IN THROAT INFECTED BY GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA

Sevan H. Bakir* and Fattma A. Ali

ABSTRACT

Tonsillitis and Pharyngitis are an infection of the throat region poses one of the most common problems in the upper respiratory tract infection and are one of the main reasons leading the persons to seek advice from a physician. This study was carried out during the period (December, 2012 to August, 2013). A total of two hundred of throat sawbs were collected from patients with tonsillitis and pharyngitis infection at the age ranged between (1-70) years, who were attending the clinic outpatient unit in Rizgary and Raparin teaching hospitals in Erbil city. Throat swabs were collected and examined for microscopically using Gram stain examination and culture technique. Isolated microorganisms were identified using microscopical, morphological, biochemical tests and Vitek2 compact system. The results showed that 134(67%) of throat swabs were culture positive the total number of isolated microorganism isolates obtained from patients were (185) isolates. These isolates were distributed between Gram-positive bacteria 143(77.3%), Gram-negative bacteria 34(18.4%) and fungi 8(4.3%). Single isolates found in 84(62.7%) and mixed isolates in 50(37.3%). The most frequent isolated microorganisms from tonsillitis/pharyngitis patients were Staphylococcus aureus 54(30.5%), Streptococcus pyogenes 16(9%), Streptococcus parasanginis 12(6.8%). According to antibiotic sensitivity test most of the Gram-positive bacterial isolates showed high resistance to Penicillin 137(95.8%) and Ampicillin 136(95.1%) and the most effective antibiotics and less resistance were Ciprofloxacin 6(4.2%) and Imipenem 33(23.1%). All (143) Gram-positive bacterial isolates were screened for their ability to produce β-lactamase enzyme using Nitrocefin test, of them 116(81.1%) were found to be β-lactamase positive.

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus parasanginis and Streptococcus pyogenes.


[Full Text Article]

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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process)